Spanish legislation provides for the right of refugees to education and international protection. In practice, however, the absence of a legal framework and institutional infrastructure specifically designed to identify the needs of this target group and provide an appropriate response runs counter to this formal recognition. There are no mechanisms to guarantee the fulfilment and respect of these rights. This failing has a particularly harmful effect on child refugees and asylum seekers, given their greater vulnerability. This study provides an overview of the current situation of refugee and asylum seeking minors in the Spanish State – with regard to the right to education and, more generally, in relation to access to adequate protection mechanisms given their vulnerable situation.