Schools and higher education systems worldwide are finishing their third academic year under disruptions caused by COVID-19. The pandemic has had unprecedented effects on education. During peak infection periods, many countries mandated school and university closures for weeks or months, forcing hundreds of millions of teachers, parents, children and students around the globe to stay at home and switch to alternative forms of learning such as home schooling, distance learning and on-line lectures.Emerging evidence, as well as UNHCR’s recent operational experiences in Europe, suggest that vulnerable groups like refugee, asylum-seeking, internally displaced and stateless children have been disproportionately affected by closures of educational institutions. As is the case for local host populations, long-term effects on academic performance, development and well-being of refugee, asylum-seeking, internally displaced and stateless children and youth can be expected, exacerbating existing gaps and challenges in education of displaced learners. This policy brief outlines some the main challenges in education of displaced learners in Europe as the region emerges from the pandemic. UNHCR also provides a series of recommendations for policy-makers and civil society at regional, national and local levels to mitigate the particularly strong effects the pandemic disruptions are having on education of refugees, asylum-seekers, internally displaced people and stateless people.Inevitably, the lingering effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on refugee education will interact with the effects of the refugee emergency in Ukraine. The crisis has caused hundreds of thousands of children and youth to flee to European countries since 24 February 2022. While the situation is still fluid, it is already clear that the unprecedented movements of Ukrainian refugees into European countries will bring important new challenges to education systems across the region. In the post-COVID education landscape, these new challenges may exacerbate and complicate the existing ones in important ways.