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Colonial imaginaries and psy-expertise on migrant and refugee mental health in education
Education has become, rather unproblematically, a site for mental health management, with policies and implementation strategies that identify and support students’ mental health. Different forms of in-school mental health support have increased both in the Global North and South, with teachers being on the frontline when identifying students’ mental distress and recommending treatment pathways. Through an investigation of data produced…
The migratory experience: Challenging inclusionary measures
This chapter explores how refugees wishing to attend tertiary education experience a language learning initiative in Norway. It shows how this ostensibly inclusionary measure, instead of supporting the refugees' ambitions, hampers their efforts and works to exclude. Through a collaboration involving five prior participants enrolled in language learning, all with refugee status, and three researchers positioned differently towards the topic,…
Inclusion, exclusion and Syrian refugees in Turkey
Forced migration movements are changing the social, demographic and cultural structures of countries following political unrest, civil war, and international interventions in Syria. The immigration of Syrians to Turkey has required intensive work, particularly relating to the education of refugee children. A systems theory framework supports the evaluation of inclusive education practices directed towards Syrian refugee children and highlights exclusionary…
The Role of the Finnish and Australian Universities in Achieving a Better and More Sustainable Future for All
This chapter adopts an international perspective and discusses the policies and activities that the universities both in Finland and in Australia have undertaken in order to strengthen and develop the prosperity for achieving a better and more sustainable future for all. Social responsibility is approached from the broad-based perspectives – especially how research and development (R&D) activities of universities can…
From Engagement to Strategy: The Journey Towards a Civic University
Between 2002 and 2018, at a time when UK universities were being increasingly measured in economic and financial terms, Staffordshire University established a dedicated public engagement unit. Staffed by an experienced team of “pracademics” (Posner, 2009), the Creative Communities Unit (CCU) engaged with community members and voluntary organizations through teaching, research, and consultancy. Underpinning CCU practice was a clear set…
Addressing Avoidable Inequalities: The Role of One University in Place-Based Transformational Change
This chapter explores one UK university’s influence and involvement as a key partner within the 2025 Movement, a movement for change with a collective vision to tackle avoidable health and housing inequalities by 2025 in North Wales, UK. The approach to building 2025 is founded in systems leadership and social movements resulting in transformational change in the way we work,…
Sustaining Non-formal Refugee Education Programs in a Covid-future World
In this discussion essay, characteristics of the provision of formal and non-formal education for refugee children in Greece will be explored through a comparative approach. The comparison reveals aspects of the social environments in the lives of refugee children. These will be examined through the lens of Uri Bronfenbrenner’s (1979, 1986) ecological systems theory as a means to understand the…
Social Engagement and Cultural Adaptation of Young Refugees Through Gaming and Playful Design
The document addresses one of the main themes of the present day, i.e., the problem of forced migration—commonly referred to as seeking refuge. The target user of this study is exiled children who, in most cases, arrive at their destination alone and with few or no primary survival conditions. UNHCR (2015) points out that more than 65 million people worldwide…
Turkey has been hosting the largest Syrian refugee migration in the world since 2011, which has necessitated a continuous change in state-level measures to cater for the deficiencies of a forced displacement ranging from economic to social and educational instruments. Despite constructive national policies and legislation of the Turkish government and financial support, refugee access and enrollment in higher education…
Germany has become the most important destination country for young refugees in Europe (Destatis, 2021). Vocational education and training can make an important contribution to overcome educational barriers and gain participation in society (Will & Hohmut, 2020). Since 2015, rural regions have faced new challenges in establishing effective support systems for young apprentices with forced migration experience (Ohliger et al.,…
Students with Limited or Interrupted Formal Education in Primary and Secondary Classrooms in the U.S., Australia, Canada, and the UK
This chapter shares an overview of students with limited or interrupted formal education (SLIFE) in the United States and three other prominent English-speaking countries with a growing number of SLIFE: Australia, Canada, and the United Kingdom. Thus, this chapter has been organized into four main sections: (1) introduction to SLIFE, (2) in-depth overview of SLIFE in primary and secondary U.S.…
Adult English Learners with Limited or Interrupted Formal Education in Diverse Learning Settings
This chapter provides an overview of adult students with limited or interrupted formal education (SLIFE) who have immigrated to English-speaking countries and participate in literacy education and second language learning for adults (LESLLA) programs. In order to provide an accurate perspective of LESLLA students, this chapter will (1) examine characteristics of the adult learner population, (2) provide an overview of…
Syrian Refugees in Turkey: (Un)Equal Opportunities in Education
The number of Syrian refugees seeking shelter in Turkey continues to rise as Syria enters its tenth year of violence. The ongoing crisis has resulted in more than 3.5 million registered Syrian refugees (UNHCR 2019). Although multiple social, economic, and security related debates have been studied by researchers in this field, the scope of this chapter focuses on the education…
Educational and Career Opportunities for Refugee-Background Adults in Norway: A DLC Perspective
Similar to other European countries, Norway has opened its borders to large numbers of refugees in the recent years. Norwegian language training is seen as serving an important role in the process of resettlement and integration into the Norwegian society and constitutes a central component of the obligatory, two-year Introduction Program for adult refugees. On the other hand, English, Norway’s…
“Wie soll ich das Kind bewerten?” Between Standardization and Differentiation in the Assessment of Plurilingual Refugee Students in Foreign-Language Classes in Germany: A Qualitative Study of Teachers’ Practices and Perceptions
In this chapter, we analyse the practices and attitudes of German teachers regarding assessment of refugee students learning Spanish or English as foreign languages. The data were collected through interviews with ten Spanish or English teachers dealing with refugee students in their classrooms in secondary schools in Hamburg in 2017 (Thölkes, “Schaffen die das?”. Die Leistungsbeurteilung geflüchteter Kinder und Jugendlicher…
Introduction: Language Learning of Adult Migrants in Europe
In this introductory chapter, we first delineate issues and factors relevant in the study of migrants, and in particular refugees, learning new languages in those regions that distinguish this group from other groups of language learners. We highlight the tension between language and integration, and the often-disparate aims between national systems of adult migrant language education, language teachers in classrooms,…
The Accelerated Learning Programme (ALP) of UNICEF for teaching history in culturally and linguistically diverse classrooms in Greece
Our study pertains to the development of new teaching material for the subject of History, to be used in the low Greek secondary education (Gymnasium), either in reception or in mixed classes attended mostly by refugee and immigrant children, approximately 13-15 years old, who are taught and learn Greek as their second language (L2). Our design aimed at the development…
Expectations, experiences and anticipated outcomes of supporting refugee students in Germany: Systems theoretical analysis of organizational semantics
This chapter looks into semantic associations and potential discourses on refugee students within German higher education organizations (HEOs). The main task of organizational systems is to reduce complexity: they set limits to what is possible and thereby create communicative expectations. The chapter first provides an overview of higher education for refugees in Germany and international research on refugees in higher…
Extending the Welcome: The Role of University–Community Partnerships in Supporting Refugees in England
As issues around refugee rights have come to public attention following the surge in asylum application in Europe in 2015, several responses have been developed by universities in England to extend the welcome to refugees in both local communities and on their campuses. While some institutions act on their own, others have created social relationships and collaborations with local and…
The German case: an analysis of refugee student supports in higher education
Germany has frequently been cited as a case study in the contemporary dialogue around refugee higher education. Much of the emerging literature that focuses on refugee education in Germany has dealt with access to higher education institutions (HEIs), profiling ‘pathway’ or ‘bridging’ programmes that prepare students for higher education and are familiar in other national settings. This chapter seeks to…
Dead end schools? Refugee teenagers and school segregation in Germany
The German school system is facing an extraordinary challenge in integrating well over 200,000 children and teenagers who have sought asylum since the summer of 2015. Despite the remarkable efforts of teachers, school administrators, and policy-makers, in recent years many young refugees have been unable to access a nearby school within the three months set forth by European Union legislation.…
Towards a socially just system of newcomer school integration: Syrians in Canada and Germany
The Syrian diaspora of newcomers to Canada or Germany represent the more fortunate refugees escaping from civil war, that is, more fortunate in terms of their arrival into two democratic, socialist-oriented societies as opposed to being housed in refugee camps in neighboring Middle Eastern nations bordering Syria. They are also more fortunate in attending schools where Canadian and German educators…
Refugees in neoliberal universities
Open Learning Initiative (OLIve) at the University of East London has been preparing forced migrant students for university in the UK since 2019. One of the main barriers for creating meaningful support for forced migrants is the hostile environment which shifts border control to educational institutions; ever increasing bureaucratic pressures to follow and document procedures; and the neo-liberalisation of universities…
Education as a panacea for refugee integration? Evidence from Germany and the United States
As a result of conflict and instability worldwide, Europe and North America have experienced a higher influx of refugees recently. While the United States (US) has been the leading country for refugee resettlement historically, Germany has recently become host to a large number of these individuals. To aid in coping with their arrival, international organizations advocate using education, which provides…
Female refugees’ transitions into higher education: Comparative perspectives from Germany, Egypt, And Kyrgyzstan
This paper explores the experience of female refugees as they transition into higher education. Through a cross-national comparative analysis based on qualitative research and personal interviews conducted in three countries, researchers examined the different ways institutions in Kyrgyzstan, Egypt and Germany facilitate the integration of female refugees.
Refugee women, possible selves and higher education
Possible selves, both feared and desired, are greatly affected by transitional life periods. There is, however, an absence of research on the impact of migration on possible selves where previous selves have been rendered impossible through the processes of forced displacement. This chapter draws on detailed biographical interviews and informal conversations with eighteen refugee women who, through participation in three…
‘The other brick in the wall’: Integrating and empowering refugee students through intercultural education; a case study from greece
The refugee crisis, the largest migratory wave since the Second World War, has constituted a challenge for European societies, at an economic, social, but also moral level. In times of frustration, when European values appear more fragile than ever, education can play a key role in the management of the crisis and the prevention of discrimination. Greece has been one…
International Perspectives on the Pedagogies of Educational Transitions
There has been a great deal written recently about children starting school, particularly primary school. All of the stakeholders in these transitions to school have been considered, along with matters of readiness – for the child, family, educators, schools and communities; adjustment and adaptation; continuity and change in curricula and learning; and the opportunities, aspirations, expectations and entitlements encompassed in…
Reclaiming Migrant Motherhood: Identity, Belonging, and Displacement in a Global Context
Contrary to popular media tropes of the ‘young, lone, male refugee’ arriving at Europe’s borders, Greece has in fact seen a steady flow of female refugees arriving since 2015. Most newcomers come in family groups, and many, including teenage girls, are mothers – many of whom aspire to continue (or begin) their schooling. While access to formal education has increased…
Concluding thoughts
This concluding chapter brings together the voices of both authors and reflects upon the learning from Sections 1 and 2. It articulates the ways in which the book has developed an inclusive model for the education of refugee children and illustrates enabling factors for realising this in the English context. The chapter asserts that it is to the benefit of…
Policy environment – England
This chapter describes the current policy environment as it impacts on the education of newly arrived refugee children in England. It begins by reflecting that there is in fact little in the way of a coherent policy for this group, and then describes some of the key pieces of legislation which affect them, along with the funding arrangements for education.…
On the ground: The East of England
This chapter describes the practical reality of day-to-day life for refugee children and for those working for them in a single region of England. It is based around on-the-ground reportage and on interviews with young people, with practitioners working in the voluntary and public sectors and with the staff at an independent school which has welcomed a number of recent…
A historical narrative of refugee education in England
This chapter delves into history in search of examples which could prove useful or interesting to those who seek to change, implement or improve today’s educational policy environment. Starting with the arrival of the Huguenots in the 17th Century and finishing with the Vietnamese who came on resettlement programmes between 1978 and 1988, it uses a series of case studies…
A bespoke model of inclusive education for new arrivals
This chapter begins with a portrait of life at Fern College, a bespoke post-16 provision for refugee and unaccompanied asylum-seeking children. The chapter then explains the context for the development of this full-time provision, which is a pilot project whose holistic curriculum was heavily influenced and shaped by the theoretical concepts of safety, belonging and success. The chapter then analyses…
Education and the concept of success
The chapter begins with Gare’s reflections upon the ways in which he is now able to consider a future in his new context and in so doing introduces the concept of success within education provision for refugee children who have very differing start and end points from their peers. The chapter illustrates how success takes on different forms through the…
Education and the growth of belonging
This chapter begins with a further extract from an interview with Gare, which illustrates how he has experienced a sense of belonging as he has built connections within and outside his education provision. The chapter then moves to a portrait of Jasmine Gardens Academy, which offers a rich case study of how one institution works to foster a growing sense…
Education and the search for safety
The chapter opens with an extract from Gare’s story, which illustrates the importance of the concept of safety through education for one refugee child. The chapter then offers a descriptive case study of Larkspur School, focusing on the practices and organisational structures that are in place to help refugee children experience a sense of safety. The case study portrait draws…
Redistribution, recognition and representation
This chapter introduces the second theoretical framing for the book, Nancy Fraser’s theory of social justice as ‘participatory parity’, and the associated tripartite components of redistribution, recognition and representation. The chapter argues for a socially just frame for inclusion. It begins with an overview of the concept of social justice in relation to the topic of meaningful and high-quality inclusion…
Safety, belonging and success
This chapter begins with an overview of the context of the movement of people across borders, the notion of a refugee ‘crisis’ in Europe and the political responses to this. Despite hostile and complicated bureaucratic barriers, people still seek refuge in destinations far from their starting points. Often, for young people this is due to the pull of education. This…
Integration of syrian refugees through education policies in Turkey
Opening its door to 3.6 million Syrians, Turkey is host to the largest refugee population today (UNHCR 2020). In addition to providing them with humanitarian aid, Turkey has made academic and financial reforms to enhance Syrian refugees‘ access to higher education (Ergin and de Wit 2019). Thanks to these reforms, over 27,034 Syrian refugees accessed Turkish universities as of the…
How Social Media Can Play a Role in an Educational Context, in an Informal Refugee Camp in Europe
European policy on migration does not safeguard the rights of refugees as they travel into and across European State borders (Rygiel, Ataç, Köster-Eiserfunke, & Schwiertz, 2015). Furthermore, refugees currently in transit through Europe have little or no access to media platforms. Mainstream media frames the current migration flow into Europe with narratives of charity, sympathy, and criminality (Rettberg & Gajjala,…