Unaccompanied & separated children

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“Coming to Norway as a refugee can be misinterpreted as a bad thing” Exploring the Individual Educational Experiences of African Youth in Norway
There is a lot of research written about unaccompanied minors in Norway, but this thesis is concerned with the individual education experiences of African unaccompanied minors. The purpose of this thesis is to explore the experiences of African unaccompanied minors regarding access to education opportunities in Norway. Based on a review of literature on unaccompanied minors, by using four theories:…
2022
Critical Thinking and Motivation in Vocational Training and Baccalaureate: A Comparison Study of Students of Spanish Nationality, Unaccompanied Foreign Minors and Young Care Leavers
The present study analyzed academic motivation and its relationship with dispositions towards critical thinking in a sample of 131 students of Spanish nationality and 131 students of foreign nationality (unaccompanied foreign minors and foreign adolescents who had previously experienced the Andalusian care system). For this, an ex-post-facto study was conducted which was descriptive, comparative, and cross-sectional in nature. The main…
2022
Feasibility of a randomised trial of Teaching Recovery Techniques (TRT) with refugee youth: results from a pilot of the Swedish UnaccomPanied yOuth Refugee Trial (SUPpORT)
Background: Although post-traumatic stress is prevalent among unaccompanied refugee minors (URM), there are few evidence-based psychological interventions for this group. Teaching Recovery Techniques (TRT) is a brief, manualised intervention for trauma-exposed youth, which has shown promising results in exploratory studies. The aim of the present study was to assess the feasibility of conducting a randomised controlled trial (RCT) evaluating the…
2022
Educational provision for newly arrived unaccompanied sanctuary seekers aged 15–16
Local Authorities in England are rarely able to find a school place for newly arrived unaccompanied sanctuary seekers when the young person arrives in their locality aged 15–16. Criticisms regarding this exclusionary practice are plentiful; that said, it has been argued the dominance of debate regarding access to mainstream education for pupils aged 15–16 obfuscates critical analysis of the educational…
2022
The Rights Hero - Serious Games for Human Rights Education and Integration of Migrant and Refugee Children in Europe
Following the rise of migrant inflows in Europe since 2015, more than 210,000 unaccompanied children have arrived in Europe. This article argues that serious games can in principle fill the gap of human rights education that these children face and ultimately help them develop, but important issues and challenges need to be considered. The article follows the design and development…
2022
Education of unaccompanied refugee minors in high-income countries: Risk and resilience factors
Record numbers of unaccompanied refugee minors continue to arrive in high-income countries seeking asylum and protection. Despite receiving educational support, unaccompanied refugee minors continue to be vulnerable to negative educational experiences and outcomes. The review investigates what resilience factors enable unaccompanied refugee minors in high-income countries to have positive educational experiences and outcomes. It aims to inform the literature on…
2022
Characterizing Unaccompanied Foreign Minors: Educational Level and Length of Stay as Individual Difference Factors That Impact Academic Self-Efficacy
The aim of the present study is to analyze individual differences in academic self-efficacy within a population of Unaccompanied Foreign Minors (UFM) from the European cities of Ceuta and Melilla (Spain). Variables describing educational level and length of stay were considered in a sample of 377 individuals being cared for in different youth centers. Of these, 63.4% belonged to the…
2022
Practitioners’ perspectives and needs: Developing skills to support unaccompanied asylum-seeking children (UASCs) in experiencing ‘belonging’ in English educational spaces
This article builds on Yuval-Davis’s (2006, 2007, 2011) theories of belonging, in order to relay how practitioners can support unaccompanied asylum-seeking children (UASCs) in developing a positive sense of belonging in educational spaces in England. To do so, the article synthesises literature surrounding theories of belonging, UASCs’ educational access in England and practices supporting UASCs’ educational attainment and sense of…
2022
The educational outcomes of refugee and asylum-seeking children in England
New research from the Education Policy Institute, supported by Unbound Philanthropy, finds that asylum-seeking children who enter the UK separated from their parents are on average over three years behind non-migrant children at school by the time they take their GCSEs. The new EPI working paper, which is the first study to examine the educational outcomes of the majority of…
2021
Teach us for what is coming: The transition into adulthood of foreign unaccompanied minors in Europe: case studies from France, Greece, Ireland, Italy, and the Netherlands
This report looks at what it is like to be a young person alone and seeking safety in Europe when turning 18. It paints a difficult situation with many shortcomings but also some promising practices. The main finding is there is no legal framework or specific support schemes for unaccompanied minors (UAMs) entering adulthood. This leaves many young people to…
2021
Happy 18th? Unaccompanied minors and the transition to adulthood. An Italian case study
This qualitative study considers the interaction between the Italian migration regime and young male African migrants (age 14-21) who have made the precarious, illegalised journey to Italy, where they are bureaucratically labelled as ‘unaccompanied minors’. The thesis focuses in on what happens when these children become legally adult; examining how the idealised concept of ‘childhood’ has a bordering effect, dividing…
2021
The impact of educational achievement on the integration and wellbeing of Afghan refugee youth in the UK
An unprecedented number of unaccompanied asylum seeking children (UASC) have arrived in Europe over the last decade, and young Afghans account for the highest proportion of UASC across England, Scotland and Wales. Despite a wealth of UK policies aimed at ensuring positive outcomes for young people who have been through the care-system, and a rich body of research exploring the…
2021
The Personal Learning Environment of Unaccompanied Foreign Minors in Spain
Spain is one of the countries with the greatest number of unaccompanied foreign minors (UFM) whose educational and social inclusion is a challenge and a priority. The present research considers the use of tools and strategies as fundamental for the inclusion of minors and improvement of their personal learning environment (PLE): self-concept of the learning process, planning and management of…
2021
Impact of the covid-19 pandemic on habilitating residential communities for unaccompanied minors during the first lockdown in italy: The educators’ relational perspective
(1) Background: Italian residential communities for unaccompanied minors suffered a long period of closure during the SARS-COV2 lockdown. Professional educators who work inside these institutions with the aim to habilitate children toward life-span achievements faced a great challenge and responsibility during this period. In this context, the psychological well-being and development of unaccompanied children were at high risk. The aim…
2021
The effects of service-learning on physical education teacher education: A case study on the border between Africa and Europe
Recent studies, supported by the European project Europe Engage – Developing a Culture of Civic Engagement through Service-Learning within Higher Education in Europe, suggest that service-learning (SL) is an effective approach to develop personal and social learning linked to real contexts. This particular case study analyses the perceived effects of an SL programme implemented in Melilla (on the border between Africa…
2021
The role of civil society organisations in labour market integration of young immigrants in Sweden: An analysis of the organisation Right To Play
During the year of 2015 and the large migration wave that hit Europe, many unaccompanied young refugees came to Sweden. For this particular group, the challenge is to become integrated to the labour market in order to receive a permanent residency permit in Sweden after they graduate their upper secondary education. Over the past few years, it has become more…
2020
Unaccompanied asylum-seeking children: Childhood, agency and integration
This thesis investigates the practices and understandings of integration of asylum-seekers, under 18, who arrive in the UK without parent, guardian or carer. The recognition of children as active participants in society is widespread across the social sciences, yet this critical enquiry into the integration of unaccompanied minors brings new understandings concerning the form and complexities of agency. Unaccompanied minors…
2020
An emancipatory study exploring the educational experiences of unaccompanied children and young people
This research was set within the context of the refugee crisis and children and young people’s (CYP) rights. This study aimed to explore the educational experiences of unaccompanied children and young people (UCYP), a particularly high-risk group who are separated from their parents due to reasons such as war, persecution or violence, and whom do not have the protection of…
2020
School integration in a Southern Norwegian municipality: Factors that hinder the integration of unaccompanied young refugees into the Norwegian schools
Unaccompanied young refugees constitute a vulnerable portion of the refugee population because of the numerous hardships they contend with both in the country of origin and during the flight. Given the plethora of challenges they face, many often find it challenging to integrate into the school environment and society at large. This study attempted to explore and describe the challenges…
2020
Navigating troubled waters: Unaccompanied minors views on education and language learning in Austria
This thesis analyses how young refugees experience learning and living in Austria. It examines their motivation for learning and how their motivation may be influenced by the difficulties they face (e.g.: PTSD, anxiety, very low levels of literacy, language barriers, having never attended a school before or having not attended one in a long time, refugee accommodation, and limited access…
2020
Needs of educators for the socio-educational attention of unaccompanied foreign children in reception centers [Necesidades de los educadores para la atención socioeducativa del menor extranjero no acompañado en los centros de acogida]
The present study aims to show a description of the characterization, training, and intervention carried out by educators who attend unaccompanied foreign minors in a reception center in the city of Granada, Spain. Nineteen educators were surveyed with a questionnaire and that was then analyzed using a quantitative methodology. The results obtained revealed a series of needs presented by the…
2020
Refugee Youth Educational Trajectories
This is an account of three refugee youth—Yaser, Abas, and Malek—who fled from their home countries and arrived in Greece after 2015 as unaccompanied asylum-seeking minors. All three youngsters were fluent in English and engaged in public narration at the Intercultural Forum in Nafplion Greece in June 2018. Through vivid narratives, they showcase their tireless efforts to obtain formal education…
2020
Déficits in educational action with vulnerable adolescents from Latin America living in Spain [Déficits en la acción socioeducativa dirigida a adolescentes vulnerables latinoamericanos residentes en España]
The Protection System for Children and Adolescents in Spain has the same mechanisms for the national population as it does for the foreign population of children and Young people who are originally from Latin American. This research aimed to determine the specific emancipation difficulties of youths from Latin America with a Child Protective Service record, as well as to identify…
2020
Being inside out: the slippery slope between inclusion and exclusion in a Swiss educational project for unaccompanied refugee youth
This article discusses how important social markers surrounding the figure of the unaccompanied minor, such as ‘integration’ and ‘deservingness’ are negotiated and made sense of by unaccompanied refugee youth and their teachers in a Swiss integration class. Starting from the premise of the classroom as both, a project of future-making and control, I investigate the ambiguous potential of education in…
2020
Common mental disorders among young refugees in Sweden: The role of education and duration of residency
Background: Studies investigating risks of common mental disorders (CMDs) in refugee youth are sparse. The current study examined health care use due to CMDs in unaccompanied and accompanied refugee youth and Swedish-born, and the role of education and residency duration. Methods: This longitudinal cohort study included 746,517 individuals (whereof 36,347 refugees) between 19 and 25 years, residing in Sweden in…
2020
Civil Servants Talk Back – Political Subjectivity and (Re) Constructions of the Nation
This article discusses the emergence of political subjectivity and politicization among social workers and teachers. We present situations that have induced teachers and social workers to become politically active and examine what their struggle might imply for these unaccompanied children. We also ask how the nation state is interpellated and transformed. Drawing on Laclau, Mouffe and Biesta, we find that…
2020
Academic self-efficacy in unaccompanied foreign minors: Structural equation modelling according to schooling
(1) Background: Newmigratory flows taking place in Europe and the USA are categorised by a huge arrival of unaccompanied foreign minors (UFM), requiring appropriate attention to schooling in order to guarantee their integration. In facing this situation, the various political and educational administrations of the European Union (EU) have promoted an action plan for schools. Despite this, it has been…
2020
What are the experiences of education for unaccompanied asylum-seeking minors in the UK?
Background: The number of refugees worldwide has increased in recent years, and with this, there has been an increase in the numbers of unaccompanied asylum-seeking minors (UASMs) in the UK. Refugees have been found to experience notable difficulties upon resettlement, and there is evidence to suggest that education can provide a supportive role for young refugees. Although there has been…
2020
Language learning and educational inclusion in Calabria: Key findings and recommendations
In Italy, the acquisition of the Italian language is considered a fundamental means to guarantee access to local services and the beginning of an integration process. The teaching of the Italian language is entrusted with two providers: on the national government side, it is provided by the Centres for Adult Education (CPIA); from the third and private sector, these courses…
2019
Building autonomous pathway for unaccompanied foreign minors and young adults – National Roundtable of Italy 2019
The context is provided on the basis of the conclusions of the Access to Educational Report for refugee and migrant children in Europe, carried out jointly by Unhcr, Unicef ​​and Iom. A greater effort is needed to ensure that all minors who are migrants, refugees and asylum seekers have access to quality education and guarantees for the continuation of their…
2019
Unaccompanied Asylum-Seeking Minors, NGO cooperation, Teaching Materials – National Roundtable of Bulgaria 2019
The National Round Table (NRT) 2019 program was structured around 4+1 topics related to educational integration of refugee children. The 4 main topics were chosen by the participants in the NRT 2018 in Sofia as the most relevant nationally. To take advantage of the pan-European nature of the SIRIUS Network and its spin-off projects, a special focus was put on…
2019
Education, acculturation, and adaptation: Unaccompanied migrant and refugee youths in Italy
Migration worldwide is characterized by the presence of unaccompanied minors, separated from their parents or any primary caregivers. The present study aimed to fill literature gaps on the acculturation and adaptation of unaccompanied migrant and refugee adolescents. The Ward and Geeraert model (2016), which explores how acculturation unfolds within different ecological contexts, namely societal, institutional and familial, was employed to…
2019
Analysis of care and education pathways of refugee and asylum-seeking children in care in England: Implications for social work
There are currently 4,560 refugee and asylum-seeking children in care in England, but little is known about their care histories and educational outcomes. This study analysed the educational outcomes of unaccompanied refugee and asylum-seeking children in care at age 16 (n = 167) in 2013, using secondary data analysis. It compared their care histories and educational experiences with other children…
2019
Social Work Education in Uncertain Times: Protecting the Human Rights of Migrants
In Greece, the coincidence of deep austerity occurring at the same time as the advent of large numbers of incoming asylum seekers and migrants has created an extremely pressing condition for social work practice. Social workers in state and municipal social services and in nongovernmental organizations are setting up frontline intensive interventions for arriving migrants and those staying in camps…
2019
Labour market participation among young refugees in Sweden and the potential of education: a national cohort study
This register-based study examined the importance of education on labour market participation among young refugees in Sweden. The study population consisted of unaccompanied (n = 1606) and accompanied refuges (n = 4142), aged 23–26 years in 2006–2010, after 7 years of residence in Sweden. Native Swedish, aged 24 years (n = 347,255) constituted the comparison population, with intercountry adoptees (n…
2019
Conceptualising educational provision for unaccompanied asylum-seeking children in England
The right to education for all children, including asylum-seeking children, is enshrined in the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child. However, there is little research available to describe the educational provision provided to unaccompanied asylum-seeking children (UASC) in England. Crucially, it is not known whether the educational needs are met by the provision available to UASC. In the…
2019
Visibility, resilience, vulnerability in young migrants
Young unaccompanied asylum seekers have been portrayed as vulnerable, resilient or both. Those granted residency in Europe are offered support by health and social care systems, but once they leave the care system to make independent lives, what part can these services play? Our review of research with migrants who have been in care in Sweden and the United Kingdom…
2019
A mobile learning platform to guarantee education continuity for unaccompanied foreign minors and refugees
Between 2014 and 2017, around 623,000 people arrived by sea in Italy. This has led to a huge problem for guarantee quality instruction for migrants, especially young people; research carried out by UNICEF has shown that young migrants represent the desire to be able to resume regular education as soon as possible. The answer to these new education challenges finds…
2019
Improving education for refugee background students: Research findings
This research aimed to understand the experiences of refugee background students (RBS) in secondary schools and colleges in order to support their progression to Higher Education. The research focused on the refugee students’ experiences of arriving in, and moving through, the education system. Additionally, the research looked at the aspirations of young refugees, how these are being met and their…
2018
The educational needs of unaccompanied asylum-seeking children in UK in one local authority in England: Professional and child perspectives
This two-part small-scale research is positioned within a social constructionist interpretive epistemology. Both parts of the research used qualitative methods. Part One explores the perspectives of unaccompanied asylum-seeking children (UASC) in relation to their educational experiences in the UK. It also considers the experiences, opportunities and challenges for school and college staff with supporting the educational needs of UASC in…
2018
Education for unaccompanied migrant children in Europe: Ensuring continued access to education through national and school-level approaches
This policy memo provides a brief overview of national and school-level approaches to the inclusion of unaccompanied migrant children in formal education systems across EU Member States. The memo also discusses wider policy responses to the integration of these children into the host societies.
2018
Intertwined journeys of a PhD student and unaccompanied minors: Autoethnography of research with vulnerable participants
Aim/Purpose The aim of this article is to discuss a PhD student's experience of working with unaccompanied asylum-seeking minors, amidst a rapidly changing global situation. The focus is on how the research process influenced the novice PhD student, and how the student's subject position influenced the research. Background The incentive for this article comes from an examiner's comment, which argued…
2018
‘Colour-evasiveness’ and racism without race: the disablement of asylum-seeking children at the edge of fortress Europe
This article explores discriminatory discourses articulated by Italian professionals operating in educational, health and social services for refugees in Rome, in relation to the educational and social inclusion of unaccompanied asylum-seeking and refugee children. It locates such narratives within the historical ‘concealment and invisibilisation of race and racism’ that have characterised Italy particularly since the end of the Second World…
2018
What is the Impact of Placement Type on Educational and Health Outcomes of Unaccompanied Refugee Minors? A Systematic Review of the Evidence
Record numbers of unaccompanied refugee minors have been arriving in high-income countries since 2015. Child welfare agencies and non-governmental organisations tasked with providing services have struggled to cope with demands on their services as a result. Despite this, there is little research on how best to meet their needs and in particular what services can mitigate the psychological difficulties they…
2018
Falling Through the Cracks: Enabling access to HE for unaccompanied asylum seeker children
The Government is committed to widening access to higher education (HE) for students who have left care. However, for unaccompanied children claiming asylum in the UK (over 3,000 in 2015) who fall under the care of local authorities, there is very little research on their progression rates to HE nor about the challenges they face. This report draws on the…
2017
Inclusive educational provision for newly-arrived unaccompanied asylum-seeking and refugee children: a study in a single school in Kent
Recent migration flows – including those resulting from conflict, persecution and natural disaster – place a responsibility on nations to honour international and humanitarian commitments with respect to refugees. A central part of these commitments is to make provision for the educational needs of asylum-seeking and refugee children, including those whom are unaccompanied. Indeed, education and schooling play a crucial…
2017
The journey of hope: Education for refugee and unaccompanied children in Italy
The Italian legal framework provides a high level of protection for asylum-seeking and unaccompanied minors and a noticeably inclusive approach concerning the integration of these children into the education system. That said, recent developments of the immigration legal framework concerning unaccompanied minors and its impact on the fulfilment of their rights, and in particular the right to education, should be…
2017
What are the educational needs and experiences of asylum-seeking and refugee children, including those who are unaccompanied, with a particular focus on inclusion? - A literature review
In a context of mass displacement and flows of asylum-seeking and refugee peoples across national borders, the need to respond and attend to the education of asylum-seeking and refugee children is urgent and pressing, though it is not without its challenges. This literature review focuses on the educational experiences of asylum seeking and refugee children, including those who are unaccompanied,…
2017
Working with refugees in Gothenburg, Sweden
This commentary contributes to the dialogue about societal challenges and responses to the increasing number of unaccompanied children seeking asylum in Europe. The piece provides an example of how university students in a field-based study programme offer daily activities to asylum seeking boys, who are not offered proper schooling by the local authorities. Experiences from the project reveal that partnership…
2017